AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences <p><strong>AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences</strong> (AJMAS), eISSN:2707-7179, is an international indexed peer-reviewed open access journal published in English on behalf of the <a href="">University of Tripoli Alahlia</a>-Libya and dedicated to promotion of high-quality research in all fields of medical and applied sciences. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports/study, short communication, overview and letter to the editor that reflects important advances in clinical and basic studies of all aspects of medical, bio-medical and applied sciences.</p> <p><br /><strong><em>Editoral Office in Charge</em></strong><br /><strong>Dr. Ahmed Atia</strong><br /> <br />00218910739729</p> <p>The AJMAS is listed in <a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=2707-7179&amp;btnG=">Google scholar</a>, <a href=";colors=3&amp;lang=de&amp;jour_id=466648">Leipzig University Library</a>, <a href="">Universität Hamburg e-journal</a>, <a href="">Worldcat</a>, <a href="[jourid]=466648&amp;fbclid=IwAR3D-b3m-Y1ORej-ZSuR_d8bs0v_mUqghyBDMGn2TN0w7MtpmJdcax3HtAo">Electronic Journal library Berlin Science Center for Social Research</a>, <a style="font-size: 0.875rem; color: #008acb;" href="">African Journals OnLine</a><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">, </span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="">EuroPub</a><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">, </span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href=";fv0=alqalam%20journal%20of%20medical&amp;f0=q&amp;active=result">openAIRE</a><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">, </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> and applied for indexing in the other bases. </span></p> en-US (Ahmed Atia) (Ahmed Atia) Sun, 05 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Vomiting Induced Pneumomediastinum: A Case Report of a Rare Condition <p>Pneumomediastinum is a condition characterized by the presence of free air in the mediastinum and is often a worrisome finding. It can occur spontaneously without any identifiable cause or it can be secondary to a rupture of a hollow organ or due to trauma. Clinical diagnosis is based on symptoms including; chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, and dyspnea. The diagnosis is confirmed by radiography. On differential diagnosis, esophageal perforation should be considered first, and if suspected, a contrast esophagogram or CT scan should be performed. We present a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a 20-year-old Tunisian male induced by vomiting without esophageal perforation or airway injury.</p> Mohamed Saad Saumtally, Abderrahmen Masmoudi, Amine Zouari, Skander Talbi, Houssem Harbi, Salah Boujelben Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Sun, 05 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Energy Principle of MHD Instabilities <p>In this work the MHD instability problem is reviewed, given some static equilibrium parameters (ρ_0 ,p_0 ,B ⃗_0 and υ_0=0), we study this equilibrium for small perturbations to see if these perturbations grow or decay. Among the several approaches, the energy principle is used, and the criteria for its application are recovered. This condition is applied in the study of the interchange, sausage and the kink instabilities.</p> Awad Alhasi, Abdelhamid Elmabrok Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Protective Effect of Zingiber Officinale Against Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) Induced Histological Effect in Testes of Adult Male Rabbits <p>Aims. DEHP stands for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a family of man-made chemical compounds that have been used in the development of plastics, solvents, and personal care products throughout the last century. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is known to play diverse biological roles including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, hypo-lipidemia, anti-carcinogenesis, a protective role against male reproductive dysfunction, anti-nausea, anti-thrombosis, and anti-bacterial process. The purpose of this study was to see if Zingiber officinale ethanolic extract has any anti-oxidant activity against DEHP-induced damage to the male reproductive system of adult rabbits. Methods. Twenty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups; first group was a control group were receiving corn oil; second group: rabbits were treated with Zingiber officinale alone; third group: rabbits were treated with DEHP; fourth group: rabbits were giving DEHP and Zingiber officinale. Results. The histological structure of these treated rabbits showed that the accumulation of spermatogenic and ledig cells was increased and the lumen of the seminiferous tubules was fully packed with sperms in the group 4 compared to group 3. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale has a protective nutraceutical capacity to help overcome DEHP-induced histological damage in testing.</p> Hanan Moftah, Fahima Abdelsalam, Ensaf Abdalwahed, Marfoua Ali, Fayourz Kahald Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Possible Protective Effects of Rebamipide, Tianeptine, Oleum Cinnamomi on Ethanol-Induced and Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats <p><strong>Background and objectives.</strong> Peptic ulcer disease is a problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion. It usually occurs in the stomach and proximal duodenum; less commonly it occurs in lower esophagus. The prominent causes are infection with Helicobacter pylori and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study was aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of rebamipide, tianeptine, oleum cinnamomi on ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. <strong>Methods</strong>. The present work was conducted on 72 male albino rats. Animals were randomly divided into 3 groups; Group I (8 rats), served as plain control group, they received 5 ml/kg body weight of 2% gum acacia orally daily for 7 days. Group II (32 rats), served as ethanol-induced gastric ulcer group. Group III (32 rats), served as indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer group. <strong>Results</strong>. In ethanol group; rebamipide treatment (II-b) resulted in a significant reduction in the ulcer score (P &lt;0.001), Malondialdehyde content (P &lt; 0.001) and Nuclear E2_releated factor2 content (P&lt; 0.001). On the other hand, rebamipide produced an elevation of glutathione peroxidase activity (P&lt;0.001), in ethanol control group. Tianeptine treatment (II-c) resulted in significant reduction in ulcer score P (&lt;0.001), Malondialdehyde content (P &lt; 0.001), Nuclear E2_releated factor2 content (P&lt; 0.001), and an elevation of glutathione peroxidase activity with (P &lt; 0.001) in ethanol group. Whereas, the Oleum Cinnamomi treatment resulted in significant reductions in ulcer score (P &lt; 0.001), Malondialdehde content (P &lt; 0.001), Nuclear E2_related E2 content (P&lt; 0.001), and elevation in Superoxide dismutase activity content (P &lt; 0.001) in ethanol control group. In indomethacin group; Rebamipide treatment (III-b) resulted in significant reductions in the ulcer score (P &lt; 0.001) and Nuclear E2_related factor2 content (P &lt; 0.001) in indomethacin control group respectively, while caused elevation in Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxides in indomethacin group respectively. Tianeptine treatment (III-c) resulted in significant reduction in the ulcer score (P &lt; 0.001), Malondialdehyde content (P &lt; 0.001) and Nuclear E2_ related factor content (P &lt; 0.001) in indomethacin control group respectively; and an elevation in Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities in indomethacin control group respectively. Oleum Cinnamomi treatment (III-c) resulted in significant reduction in the ulcer score (P &lt; 0.001), Malondialdehyde content (P &lt; 0.001) and Nuclear E2_related factor2 content (P &lt; 0.001) in indomethacin control group respectively; and an elevation in Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities in indomethacin control group respectively. <strong>Conclusion</strong>. Pretreatment for seven days with rebamipide, tianeptine, and cinnamon oleum, resulted in improvement in ulcer score, and gastric mucosal protection in rats with gastric ulcer induced by either in ethanol or indomethacin. This was associated with improvement in antioxidant parameters. Rebamipide produced the most prominent effect in ulcer score reduction.</p> Shahrazad Gazeti, Doaa Abdelmonsif, Amr Okda Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Prevalence of Prediabetes Phase and Associated Risk Factors in A Sample of the Non-Diabetic Population in Al- Bayda City, Libya: A Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>Aims</strong>: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of prediabetes in Al-Bayda city and to identify their associated factors. <strong>Methods</strong>. A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 4 months with a sample of 300 participants aged 18-45 years who were asked about weight, height, smoking, lifestyle, family history, current illness, and if they met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Blood samples were collected from all participants in the study and analyzed for measuring HBA1c.The statistical analysis was performed by using the Statistical Package for social sciences SPSS version 26 (IBM SPSS Statistics-26) by using Regression linear and logistic regression analysis. <strong>Results</strong>. The prevalence of pre-diabetes in our study was (47.0%). The prevalence of prediabetes during the age group of (30-39) was the higher one, which was (40.3%) and there was a significant association with prediabetes (p=0.031). There was also a significant link between smokers (90 individuals, 30.0%) and prediabetes (p=0.037). When assessing the effect of gender on the risk of prediabetes, we found a significant association between the BMI and female participants (p=0.047). The normal subject will be at risk of developing prediabetes in the prediabetic phase, where is found the association between the age group (40-49 years), BMI, Family history, Neuropathy, Retinopathy and risk of prediabetes. <strong>Conclusion</strong>. In Al Bayda-Libya, the prevalence of prediabetes is high. this result indicates that Al Bayda will face a high incidence of diabetes soon, which will create a heavy economic burden on healthcare. Age and smoking, especially in men, and BMI in women were the major risk factors. People with normal HbA1C are also at risk of prediabetes who are older, smokers, or have high BMI, positive family history, or have retinopathy or neuropathy complications. Health education should be strengthened to diminish the incidence of new cases of diabetes.</p> Amal Atair, Muna Mohamed, Nissren Magid, Mahmoud Aeteer Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Nephrotoxicity of Potassium Bromate and Ameliorating Role of Ruta chalepensis on kidney Weight and Some Biochemical Parameters of Male Rats <p><strong>Background and aims.</strong> Potassium bromate (KBrO3), used as food additive in the manufacturing of bread, is proven hazardous for the human health. Ruta chalepensis (R. chalepensis) is used in Mediterranean folk medicine to treat pulmonary conditions, for example tuberculosis, and to decrease swelling of the spleen, as well as outwardly to treat wounds. The present study aimed to investigate the protective and curative effect of R. chalepensis against KBrO3 toxicity on kidney weight and some biochemical parameters of male rats. <strong>Methods</strong>. Fifty male albino rats were divided into five groups. The first group served as control animals. The second group was administered R. chalepensis at an oral daily dose of 0.5 g/Animal for four weeks. The third group received KBrO3 at an oral daily dose of 100 mg/kg/b. w. for four weeks. The fourth group (protective group) administered with R. chalepensis alone for 2 weeks and followed by R. chalepensis in association with KBrO3 for 2 weeks. The fifth group (therapeutic group) was first given KBrO3 alone for 2 weeks and was secondly administered KBrO3 in association with R. chalepensis for 2 weeks. After 2nd and 4th weeks of treatment, the determination of kidney weights and relative kidney weight were calculated. Also, the sera were collected for biochemical assays. <strong>Results</strong>. The results of the present study showed significant increase in the mean kidney weight in KBrO3 group at 2 weeks and therapeutic groups at 2 and 4 weeks compared to the control group. In addition, significant increase in relative kidney weight in KBrO3 group after 2 and 4 weeks, and therapeutic group after 2 weeks. While, there was decrease in relative kidney weight in R. chalepensis group after 4 weeks. Furthermore, serum urea levels significantly increased after 2 weeks in KBrO3 and therapeutic groups. A significant increase in serum urea levels showed in all groups except R. chalepensis group, which revealed a slight decrease after 4 weeks. No changes in serum creatinine levels in all groups after 2 weeks. In contrast, protective and therapeutic groups revealed significant elevation in serum creatinine levels after 4 weeks. <strong>Conclusion</strong>. It may be concluded the toxic effects of KBrO3 on kidneys and minimal ameliorative effects of R. chalepensis.</p> Mabroka Hamad, Ibrahim Eldurssi, Ebtesam Gheth, Gasem Abdalla, Abdullah Algassi Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Mon, 04 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Managing Hypertension: The Role of a Food Scientist and Nutritionist <p>Hypertension can result in myocardial infarction, renal failure, strokes, and death. It is a hemodynamic condition that is accompanied by an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. One billion individuals are believed to be affected by hypertension. This work seeks to provide an exhaustive synthesis of the theoretical and experimental data presented in various publications in order to determine the role of a food scientist and nutritionist in managing hypertension using functional food. Apart from that, the use of nutraceuticals in the management of hypertension, dietary habits in relation to trends in the management of high blood pressure coupled with the use of traditional medicines and medical foods in the management of hypertension, were discussed. Functional foods have bioactive ingredients that have been associated to restricting cholesterol absorption, which is a key element in lowering blood pressure. Functional foods, nutraceuticals, the DASH diet, conventional drugs, and medicinal foods have been found to minimize the need for antihypertensive medications, improve cardiovascular health, lower rates of morbidity and mortality, and lower healthcare expenditures. In order to treat hypertension, it is advocated that people use functional foods, nutraceuticals, folk medicine, and medical foods because they are more widely available, and safe than pharmaceutical drugs.</p> Ojochenemi Egwumah; Abraham Girgih, Victoria Joshua Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison Between the Efficiency of Dermatoscope and The Light Microscope for The Diagnosis of Scabies in Tripoli, 2018-2019 <p><strong>Background and aims.</strong> Scabies is a common contagious skin infestation caused by a fertilized female mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and usually manifested with severe night itching and burrows that are visible to the naked eye. Early diagnosis and treatment of cases are essential, as misdiagnosis may result in outbreaks and significantly increase economic burden. The best ways to diagnose scabies in Tripoli have not been investigated yet. Thus, the study was aimed to compare the diagnostic properties and efficiency of using the dermatoscope (DS) by placing it directly on the affected skin, and a light microscope (LM) to view infested mite in the skin scrapings (SS) on diagnosing scabies. <strong>Methods</strong>. This study was conducted on 1037 patients with scabies who were randomly selected from dermatology department out of patients' clinics of three Hospitals in Tripoli and underwent examination by using LM on skin scraping, and DS technique during the period January 2018 to June 2019. The validity of the clinical diagnosis using the two methods DS technique and LM technique provided that each one was used separately. <strong>Results</strong>. The study showed that there were no significant differences between the three hospitals in terms of diagnosing the disease by LM and DS, with a value of (p = 0.683) and (p = 0.847) respectively, however high significant differences (p value = 0.000) between the two techniques in terms of severity of infection revealed. Both techniques reached an accurate rate of 92%, that is, they are completely identical to the diagnosis of scabies, and accordingly, the infection rate (FR) of scabies with the DS technique reaches 32%, nearly similar to the LM technique by 31%. The degree of compatibility between the two devices was very high (0.832 using the Kappa scale), and it was statistically significant, with a high generalization (P-value = 0.000), meaning that the agreement between the two techniques reached 92.4%. <strong>Conclusion</strong>. The current finding suggested that the two techniques are complementary to each other.</p> Naema Shibani, Hamida Al-Dwibe, Maha Iskandarani, Bashir Zandah Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Mon, 11 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Medication Errors’ Types, Factors and Barriers from The Point of View of Nurses at Benghazi Medical Center <p><strong>Aims</strong>. This study aimed to identify the most common types of medication errors and the most important factors that contribute to the occurrence of these errors. It also aimed to identify the main barriers to not reporting medication errors at the Benghazi Medical Center (BMC). <strong>Methods</strong>. The study used the descriptive approach, and the BMC was chosen randomly to be studied among the hospitals in the city of Benghazi. The study population consisted of all nurses working at the Benghazi Medical Center which were (332) nurses, and the response was (90%). The questionnaire was used as a study tool, and for data analysis, (SPSS) used statistical methods of percentages and frequencies. <strong>Results</strong>. From the nurses' point of view, the most common type of error in (BMC) was "giving the dose at an unspecified time" (82.7%), and that the most important factors that contributed to medication errors were related to personal factors, namely too much pressure (78.3%), and the most factor related to the surrounding environment was the factor "being interrupted and distracted while working by another person" (75.0%). As for the factors related to poor communication due to writing, the most important factor contributing to the occurrence of error was the inability to read instructions due to poor doctor handwriting (73.0%). In addition, the main barrier to not reporting medication errors was the nurses' uncertainty about what a medication error was (47.3%). <strong>Conclusion</strong>. Working on creating electronic systems that include detailed report forms for reporting errors and address all factors that negatively affect the work are worth.</p> Lamya El Adouli, Basmah Nouri, Sarah Ahmed, Hana Abu Baker, Dania Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Sat, 16 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Veneering Technique on Color Matching of Translucent Ice Zirconia Substructure Veneered with Lithium Disilicate Using Pressable Technique Versus Conventional Layering Technique: An In-Vitro Study <p><strong>Aim</strong>. This study evaluated the effect of different veneering techniques on the color of translucent Ice zirconia substructure. <strong>Methods</strong>: A total of twenty translucent Ice Zirconia disc samples 12 mm in a diameter, 0.5 mm in thickness were designed and constructed using zirkonzahn system. The samples were classified into two groups: Group I: (n = 10) veneered by layering technique using IPS emax Ceram 1.0 mm thickness, dentin shade A2. Group II (n = 10) veneered by press-on technique using IPS emax press in-got 1.0 mm thickness, shade A2. Twenty composite resin discs 12mm in diameter and 5mm in thickness in A3 shade, were fabricated to be bonded to ceramic specimens using Dual-curing translucent rely X Unicem automix Self-Adhesive Resin luting cement. The color measurement was done using a spectrophotometer unit and ∆E was calculated. Color parameters were obtained using a spectrophotometer and were used to calculate color difference value with the preselected required color A2 tab according to Vita Classical shade guide (target shade). Color difference value (ΔE=3.7) was considered a clinically acceptable color match. Data were presented as means and standard deviation (SD) values. The independent t-test was used to compare between veneering techniques with 1mm veneer thickness. <strong>Results</strong>. The results showed that veneering techniques had a significant effect on mean (ΔE) values at P ≤ 0.001. The Press-on technique showed higher statistical significance difference (ΔE) Values (4.55±0.93) than layering technique (ΔE) Values (2.25±1.04) at p ≤ 0.001. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. The proper color matching of veneered zirconia is greatly affected by the veneering techniques. The layering technique is preferred regarding color matching.</p> Milad Eshah, Mohamed Zeglam, Noora Berhaim, Nourelhouda Misurati, Siham Omer Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Mon, 18 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Non-Uniform Spatial Dose Distributions Around Co-60 in Human Tissue for Brachytherapy Treatment using Monte Carlo EGS Code <p>Brachytherapy (BT) uses encapsulated radioactive sources to deliver low (LDR) or high (HDR) dose rates to tissues. The source is implanted interstitial into tissues such as the radioactive needles used in the treatment of tongue carcinoma. These sources must be calibrated to accepted standards. In previous work, we used Monte Carlo Electron Gamma Shower EGS Code for simulating the use of Ir-192 source capsule interstitial in tongue within the oral cavity. In the present work, we extended the simulation to Co-60 source capsule which, for simplification, is similar in structure and surroundings to the Ir-192 one. Radiation Data analysis and spatial Dose distributions are presented. Simulations of non-uniform dose distributions in both the source capsule and the surroundings were presented. Data preparation and examinations of the source capsule details were carried out and compared with the published data. Both depth and radial dose curves are also analyzed. The results showed that Monte Carlo EGS is practically applicable to dose distribution estimate around brachytherapy source applicators. The dose distributions are maximum around the source and fall to minimum rapidly in the near tissue that could be adjusted for the chosen dose value. Comparisons with Ir-192 are one of our objectives in future investigation.</p> Ibrahim Othman, Bsher Abour, Zedan Alsnosi Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Sat, 23 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Infection Among Patients in Tripoli Central Hospital <p><strong>Background and aims.</strong> The prevalence of viral hepatitis has been observed in various regions in Africa, however the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. This study was aimed to illustrate the prevalence of hepatitis C and B viruses estimates in Libya and to investigate the common risk factors. <strong>Methods</strong>. The study determined the prevalence of HBV, HCV virus among patients in Tripoli Central Hospital and carried out to determine the risk factors among adult patients. <strong>Results</strong>. Overall, 259 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of hepatitis B or C were included in this study. Most cases were infected with HBV (63%) compared to HCV cases (37%). Prevalence was higher in males (HBV, (69.75%) compared to HCV (65.97%). Mean age of HBV was 40.2 and HCV 43.1. More than half of the cases were asymptomatic (55.21%). The modes of viral transmission for all patients were unknown cause by (41%) of patients. Following by dental transmission in (24%) patients. Whereas about (18%) patients were transmitted via blood transfusion and 35 (14%) of patients were transmitted by drug abuse 4 (2%). The results show that, the route of transmission by shaving and sexuality were close about (2%) and 4 (2%) transmission respectively. The lowest rate of transmission was through the contaminated needles 1(0.38%). <strong>Conclusion</strong>. This study indicates high prevalence of HBV infection comparing to HCV. Libya should implement national strategies and guidelines to limit the spreading and face the future consequences of viral hepatitis. Educating common people regarding mode of transmission will help to reduce Hepatitis B and C transmission.</p> <p><strong>Cite this article.</strong> Said A, Abuagela M, Elyounsi N, Dakhil A, Elansari A. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C Infection Among Patients in Tripoli Central Hospital. Alq J Med App Sci. 2022;5(2):406-410. </p> Abdurraouf Said, Mohamed Abuagela, Najla Elyounsi, Abulgasem Dakhil, Aisha Elansari Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Risk Factors for Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection <p><strong>Background and aims.</strong> Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common causes of UTIs in ICU cases. Many risk factors are associated with its incidence. This study aimed to determine related risk factors contributing to urinary tract infection and to identify contaminated bacteria species, as well as their susceptibility profiles to the most commonly used antimicrobial agents. <strong>Methods</strong>. The study was performed at the University of Tripoli from February to May 2022. 180 catheterized patients from different clinical wards in ICUs at University Teaching Hospital, Tripoli city Libya, were included in this research. Two urine samples were taken from all patients before and after catheterization. The samples were cultured according to the standard microbiological procedures. Isolates were identified by conventional identification methods. The questionnaire was submitted to all patients to collect information such as age, gender, and health condition. <strong>Results</strong>. The age of the patients varied from a minimum of 15 years to a maximum of 73 years with a mean age of 37.82 years. Among them 96(53.33%) were males and 84(46.67%) were female patients. Out of 180 catheterized patients, only 93(51.67%) patients showed significant growth. On multivariate analysis, age, sex, duration of catheterization, and diabetes, were found to be the significant risk factors associated with CAUTI (p&lt;0.05). All the urine cultures were monomicrobial. Gram-negative isolated species 69(74.19%), and Gram-positive isolated species 24(25.81%) Most common organism grown in culture was Escherichia coli 27 (29.03%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 18 (19.36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12 (12.90%), Enterococcus fecalis 12 (12.90 %), Staphylococcus aureus 9(9.67%), Enterobacter spp 6(6.45%), and Citraobacter spp, Acinetobacter spp, Streptococcus spp 3(3.23). <strong>Conclusion</strong>. An understanding of the risk factors in the development of CAUTI, significantly helps in reducing the additional burden on the health care system.</p> Hamida El Magrahi, Abir Ben Ashur, Mawada Ben Khalil, Maram Ben Taboun, Zeinab Bleha Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Adverse Effects Associated with Some COVID-19 Medications Used During the First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic <p>Numerous drugs have been repurposed to effectively tackle the COVID-19 pandemic as scientists and pharmaceutical firms compete to produce vaccines and antivirals without dwelling on the toxicity aspects. This paper explores the toxicity of several major medications used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Relevant literature from PubMed and Google scholar were reviewed. Several toxicities such as hepatic function disorder, damage to organs, Muscle problems, skin rash, seizures, lack of appetite, vision problems, low levels of blood cells, diarrhea, hyperkalemia renal damage, and other adverse reaction were found to be associated with drugs use for COVID-19 pandemic. The current race to produce therapeutics and vaccines must be advance with caution to avoid future consequences.</p> Idris Sadiq, Fatima Abubakar, Bashiru Ibrahim, Lawi Abdullahi, Dauda Danlami Copyright (c) 2022 AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences Wed, 10 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000